Undergraduate Courses 2016-17

Undergraduate Courses, 2016-17

Classical Civilization:

CLCV 20200. North Africa: Late Antiquity to Islam (=HIST 25701/35701, CLAS 30200, NEHC 20634/30634, CRES 25701, CMES 30634) Examination of topics in continuity and change from the third through ninth centuries CE, including changes in Roman, Vandalic, Byzantine, and early Islamic Africa. Topics include the waning of paganism and the respective spread and waning of Christianity, the dynamics of the seventh-century Muslim conquest and Byzantine collapse. Transformation of late antique North Africa into a component of Islamic civilization. Topography and issues of the autochthonous populations will receive some analysis. Most of the required reading will be on reserve, for there is no standard textbook. Readings in translated primary sources as well as the latest modern scholarship. Final examination and ten-page course paper. W. Kaegi. Autumn.

CLCV 20400. Who Were the Greeks? (=HIST 20701/30701, ANCM 30400, CLAS 30400) If the current resurgence of interest in ethnic studies is a direct reflection of a contemporary upsurge in ethnic conflict throughout the world, it remains the case that notions of peoplehood and belonging have been of periodic importance throughout history. This course will study the various expressions of Greek identity within shifting political, social, and cultural contexts from prehistory to the present day, though with a strong emphasis on classical antiquity. Particular attention will be given to theoretical issues such as anthropological definitions of ethnicity, the difference between ethnic and cultural identities, methods for studying ethnicity in historical societies, and the intersection of ethnicity with politics. J. Hall. Autumn.

CLCV 20700. Ancient Mediterranean World I. (=HIST 20700) This course surveys the social, economic, and political history of Greece from prehistory to the Hellenistic period. The main topics considered include the development of the institutions of the Greek city-state, the Persian Wars and the rivalry of Athens and Sparta, the social and economic consequences of the Peloponnesian War, and the eclipse and defeat of the city-states by the Macedonians. J. Hall. Autumn.

CLCV 20800. Ancient Mediterranean World II. (=HIST 20800) This quarter surveys the social, economic, and political history of Rome, from its prehistoric beginnings in the twelfth century BCE to the end of the Severan dynasty in 235 CE. Throughout, the focus is upon the dynamism and adaptability of Roman society, as it moved from a monarchy to a republic to an empire, and the implications of these political changes for structures of competition and cooperation within the community. C. Ando. Winter.

CLCV 20900. Ancient Mediterranean World III. (=HIST 16900) This quarter surveys the five centuries between the establishment of imperial autocracy in 27 BC and the fall of the Western empire in the fifth century AD. W. Kaegi. Spring.

CLCV 21716. A Political History of the Ancient Kingdom of Greater Armenia (ca. 188 BCE – 428 CE). (=CLAS 31716) Generally speaking, the ancient kingdom of Great Armenia is a marginal entity within the fields of ancient history and archaeology, which attracted relatively few historians of antiquity. As a matter of fact, scholars of Antiquity usually refer to Armenia only when it was involved into one of the frequent military crises between East and West. The country had an important strategic position, a vast expanse of territory, and wealthy natural resources. This explains very well the efforts of the Seleucids and of Rome, and of the Iranian dynasties of the Parthians and the Sassanids, to establish a military control and cultural influence over Armenia. Both contacts with the West and the East shaped the complex identity of Armenia - a somewhat mixed identity which is rather difficult to study. Therefore, both Classical and Iranian scholars tend to neglect the role of Armenia, or to diminish its position in the balance of power: the anachronistic cliché of a Greater Armenia as a «buffer state» is still mentioned. Accordingly, the few specialists on pre-Christian Armenia hardly communicate with those other scholars. Therefore, the very marginality of the kingdom of Armenia has not stimulated neither Classical scholars, nor Iranian scholars, to show interest in Armenia as well.This course will present a comprehensive history of ancient Armenia, from its origins to the fall of the kingdom in 428 CE, in order to reconstruct the history of the Artaxiad and of the Arsacid dynasties within a geopolitical frame considering the role of Armenia between Rome and Iran. G. Traina. Spring.

CLCV 22914. The Italian Renaissance. (=HIST 12203, CLAS 32914) Florence, Rome, and the Italian city-states in the age of plagues and cathedrals. Dante, Machiavelli, Medici, and Borgia (1250–1600). With a focus on literature, primary sources, the recovery of lost texts, technologies of the ancient world, and the role of the church in renaissance culture and politics. Humanism, patronage, translation, cultural immersion, dynastic and papal politics, corruption, assassination, art, music, magic, censorship, religion, education, science, heresy, and the roots of the reformation. Assignments include creative writing, reproducing historical artifacts, and a live reenactment of a papal election. First-year students and non-history majors welcome. A. Palmer. Autumn.

CLCV 24306. Byzantine Empire: 330–610. (=CLAS 34306, HIST 31701, ANCM 34306) A lecture course, with limited discussion, of the formation of early Byzantine government, society, and culture. Although a survey of event and changes, including external relations, many of the latest scholarly controversies will also receive scrutiny. There will be some discussion of relevant archaeology and topography. No prerequisite. Readings will include some primary sources in translation and examples of modern scholarly interpretations. Final examination and a short paper. W. Kaegi. Autumn.

CLCV 24307. Byzantine Empire: 610–1025. (=HIST 21702/31702, ANCM 34307, CLAS 34307, NEHC 21702/31702). A lecture course, with limited discussion, of the principle developments with respect to government, society, and culture in the Middle Byzantine Period. Although a survey of event and changes, including external relations, many of the latest scholarly controversies will also receive scrutiny. No prerequisite. Readings will include some primary sources in translation and examples of modern scholarly interpretations. Final examination and a short paper. Graduate students may register for grade of R (audit) or P (Pass) instead of a letter grade, except for History graduate students taking this as a required course. W. Kaegi. Winter.

CLCV 24716. Roman Philosophers on the Fear of Death. (=PHIL 20710/30710, LAWS 96305, CLAS 34716) All human beings fear death, and it seems plausible to think that a lot of our actions are motivated by it. But is it reasonable to fear death? And does this fear do good (motivating creative projects) or harm (motivating greedy accumulation, war, and too much deference to religious leaders)? Hellenistic philosophers, both Greek and Roman, were preoccupied with these questions and debated them with a depth and intensity that makes them still highly influential in modern philosophical debate about the same issues (the only issue on which one will be likely find discussion of Lucretius in the pages of The Journal of Philosophy). The course will focus on several major Latin writings on the topic: Lucretius De Rerum Natura Book III, and extracts from Cicero and Seneca. We will study the philosophical arguments in their literary setting and ask about connections between argument and its rhetorical expression. In translation we will read pertinent material from Plato, Epicurus, Plutarch, and a few modern authors such as Thomas Nagel, John Fischer, and Bernard Williams. Prerequisite: ability to read the material in Latin at a sufficiently high level, usually about two years at the college level. M. Nussbaum. Winter

CLCV 25116.  Athenian Empire. (=CLAS 35116). The Athenian Empire (477–404 BCE) is one of the most iconic empires of the past. Thucydides is famously a major source on Athen’s fifth century empire, the history of which is supposed to be well known. But how did the empire really work? A considerable new material has accumulated over the last decades. It allows us to revisit old debates but literally also to create new fields of investigation. The Athenian Empire should not anymore be analyzed in a purely political dimension. It should  also be read as a religious, social, financial and even economic construct. A comparative analysis with other imperial constructions is also much needed. This class will make use of a large body of literary, epigraphic, archaeological and numismatic sources. For all ancient Greek texts a translation will be provided, although the documents will also be available in original language. The class is open to both undergraduate and graduate students.
A. Bresson. Winter.

CLCV 25516. Strabo’s World: Early Geographic Traditions. (=CLAS 35516) This course traces the emergence of geographic thought in the Mediterranean world and the diachronic representations of space and place that became the foundations for the humanistic and social science of geography. Discussions will examine the practices that led to diverse modes and styles of spatial expression, travel and mapping, the tensions between the known world and the exotic imagined other, and the political, social, and cultural dimensions of geographic works and their historical contexts. Beyond our sustained focus on Strabo, writing under the Roman Empire, we will explore and interrogate both earlier and later traditions, from Hecataeus and Herodotus to Dionysius and Pausanias. K. Kearns. Spring.

CLCV 25716. Egypt in Late Antiquity. (=NELC 20287/30287, CLAS 35716) Egypt in Late Antiquity was a melting pot of cultures, languages and religions. With the native Egyptians subject to a series of foreign masters (Greek and Roman), each with their own languages and religious practices, Egyptian society was marked by a rich and richly documented diversity. In this course we will pay special attention to the contact of languages and of religions. Discussing on the basis of primary sources in translation different aspects characteristic of this period: The crises of the Roman Empire and their effects in Egypt, the emergence of Christianity and the decline of paganism, and the development of monastic communities. The course will end at the Islamic conquest. S. Toralles-Tovar. Spring.

CLCV 26016. Epicureanism. (=BIBL 46016, CLAS 36016) Epicureanism had a wide impact on Greek and Roman culture as a materialist system of philosophy that advocated pleasure as the goal of life. Lucretius turned its teachings into a poem with the aim of converting his fellow Romans; and it continued to inspire many readers subsequently. This course will focus on the response to Epicureanism in both antiquity and later. Beginning with the age of Epicurus himself, we will consider how individuals used the teachings in the light of their own experience and needs. Our study will take us to the rediscovery of Lucretius in the Renaissance, as well as the origins of modern atomism and the humanism of the nineteenth century. E. Asmis. Winter.

CLCV 26216. Pagans and Christians: Greek Backgrounds to Early Christianity. (=RLST 20505) This course will examine some of the Greco-Roman roots of early Christianity. We will focus on affinities between Christianity and the classical tradition, as well as ways in which the Christian faith may be considered radically different. Some of the more important issues that we will analyze are:

1. "The spell of Homer." How the Homeric poems exerted immeasurable influence on the religious attitudes and practices of the Greeks.
2. The theme of creation in Greek and Roman authors such as Hesiod and Ovid. The Orphic account of human origins. The Early Christian theme of Christ as creator/savior.
3. Greek and Roman conceptions of the afterlife. The response to the Homeric orientation in the form of the great mystery cults of Demeter, Dionysus, and Orpheus. The views of the philosophers (esp. Plato). The New Testament conception of resurrection.
4. Greek and Roman conceptions of sacrifice, the crucifixion of Christ as archetypal sacrifice, and early Christian reflection upon it.
5. The world of ancient magic and the Christian response.
6. The attempted synthesis of Jewish and Greek thought by Philo of Alexandria and its importance to early Christianity.D. Martinez. Winter.

CLCV 26616. The Ancient City: The Greek World. (=HIST 16601, CLAS 36616) This annually offered course focuses on the development and transformation of cities in the ancient Mediterranean world. Among the issues to be discussed are how one defines a city and whether ancient cities satisfy those definitional criteria; what factors account for the emergence of cities; and what elements give rise to a particularly urban way of life. Theoretical reflections will be interspersed with specific case-studies. This year the focus will be on the cities of the Greek world and will consider topics such as the relationship between the city and the polis and the degree to which Athens was a typical Greek city. J. Hall. Winter.

CLCV 26916. Aztecs and Romans: Antiquity in the Making of Modern Mexico. (=HIST 26123, KNOW 23001, LACS 26123) Modern Mexico stands in the shadow of two vibrant premodern urban societies: the Mexica (commonly known as the Aztecs) and the Romans. In this course, we will examine how Mesoamerican and Mediterranean antiquities overlapped and interacted in shaping the culture, politics, and society of the area we call Mexico from the late colonial period to the twenty-first century. Topics will include creole patriotism, the political thought of the early Mexican Republic and the Mexican Revolution of 1910, nationalist archaeology, indigenismo, mestizaje, and neoclassical and neo-Aztec art and architecture. All readings will be in translation. S. McManus. Autumn.

CLCV 27116. The Greek Countryside. (=CLAS 37116) This course explores the historic development and dynamics of the ancient Greek countryside (oikoumene, chora) alongside the emergence of the city (polis). Recent historical analyses of demography and economy, archaeological fieldwork, and research on the cultural lens of town/country are revealing a highly complex world surrounding the city walls. What are the benefits and potential interpretive challenges of investigating these places and their constituent actors? Discussions will question the construction of urban vs. non-urban categories of ancient life, agropastoral economies and markets, political and social boundaries, rural sanctuaries, diachronic change, and methods and theories for examining the countryside through material culture and textual evidence. K. Kearns. Autumn.

CLCV 27716 Exemplary Leaders: Livy, Plutarch, and Machiavelli(=PLSC 27703/47703, CLAS 37716 TCLT, FNDL 27716) Cicero famously called history the “school mistress of life.” This course explores how ancient and early modern authors – in particular, Livy, Plutarch and Machiavelli – used the lives and actions of great individuals from the Greek and Roman past to establish models of political behavior for their own day and for posterity. Such figures include Solon, Lycurgus, Alexander, Romulus, Brutus, Camillus, Fabius Maximus, Scipio Africanus, Julius Caesar, and Augustus. We will consider how their actions are submitted to praise or blame, presented as examples for imitation or avoidance, and examine how the comparisons and contrasts established among the different historical individuals allow new models and norms to emerge. No one figure can provide a definitive model. Illustrious individuals help define values even when we mere mortals cannot aspire to reach their level of virtue or depravity. Course open to undergraduates and graduate students. Readings will be in English. Students wishing to read Latin, Greek, or Italian will receive support from the professors. M. Lowrie and J. McCormick. Winter.

CLCV28716. The Roman Republic in Law and Literature. (=HIST 21007/31007, CLAS 38716) The class will study the history of the Roman republic in light of contemporary normative theory, and likewise interrogate the ideological origins of contemporary republicanism in light of historical concerns. The focus will be on sovereignty, public law, citizenship, and the form of ancient empire. C. Ando. Winter.

CLCV 28316.  Ephron Seminar: The Fall of the Roman Republic.  How—and why—the Roman republic fell is a question that has fascinated generations of historians, political theorists, poets, and even Hollywood producers. In this course, we will explore the fall of the Roman republic from a number of different angles: as a crisis experienced and vividly described by Cicero and his contemporaries, as a societal watershed that captured the imaginations of Rome’s literary giants (including Virgil, Lucan, and Tacitus), and as the failure of a political system based upon the principle of popular sovereignty. Through the close reading of Latin literature and the analysis of secondary scholarship, we will try to determine the significance that the demise of the republic held for contemporary Romans, as well as the significance that it continues to hold today. In light of recent events at home and abroad, what makes a republic work—and what happens when it fails—is a topic that has never been more relevant.  J. Mebane. Spring.

CLCV 29000. Myth Course. Greek and Roman myths have fascinated and influenced people over vast expanses of time and space and within every cultural sphere (arts, politics, religion, etc.). In this course we will look at literary, epigraphic, numismatic, artistic, and archaeological evidence of myth-telling and attempt to gain a better understanding of how and why communities or individuals use myths as strategies to achieve their own ends. We will also explore individual retellings of myths in order to learn more about the historical circumstances in which they were produced. To approach both of these themes we will focus on specific contexts in which myths were transmitted, paying special attention to who is telling the story and why. Although we will spend the majority of our time discussing the political and cultural contexts of myth-telling in antiquity, we will relate our findings to mythmaking in recent history, including present day. P. Vadan. Spring.

CLCV 29800. BA Paper Seminar. This seminar is designed to teach students the research and writing skills necessary for writing their BA paper. Lectures cover classical bibliography, research tools, and electronic databases. Students discuss research problems and compose preliminary drafts of their BA papers. They are expected to exchange criticism and ideas in regular seminar meetings with the preceptor and with other students who are writing papers, as well as to take account of comments from their faculty readers. The grade for the BA Paper Seminar is identical to the grade for the BA paper and, therefore, is not reported until the BA paper has been submitted in Spring Quarter. The grade for the BA paper depends on participation in the seminar as well as on the quality of the paper. Students may register for this seminar in either Autumn or Winter Quarter, but they are expected to participate in meetings throughout both quarters. Autumn, Winter.
Prerequisites: Fourth-year standing.


GREK 10100. Introduction to Attic Greek I. This course introduces the basic rules of ancient Greek. Class time is spent on the explanation of grammar, translation from Greek to English and from English to Greek, and discussion of student work.

GREK 10200. Introduction to Attic Greek II. Study of the introductory textbook continues through this quarter, covering further verbal morphology (participle, subjunctive, optative) and syntax of complex clauses. Students apply and improve their understanding of Greek through reading brief passages from classical prose authors, including Plato and Xenophon.

GREK 10300. Introduction to Attic Greek III: Prose. Concurrently with finishing the final chapters of the textbook in the beginning of the quarter, students read a continuous prose text (Lysias 1). This is followed by extensive review of the year's grammar and vocabulary and further reading (Plato's Crito). The aim is familiarity with Greek idiom and sentence structure.

GREK 11100. Accelerated Introduction to Attic Greek I. This course introduces the rudiments of ancient Greek. Class time is spent on the explanation of grammar, translation from Greek to English and from English to Greek, and discussion of student work. Autumn

GREK 11200. Accelerated Introduction to Attic Greek II. The remaining chapters of the introductory textbook are covered. Students then apply and improve their knowledge of Greek as they read selections from Xenophon. Winter
GREK 11300. Accelerated Introduction to Attic Greek III. Students apply the grammatical skills taught in GREK 11100-11200 by reading a continuous prose text by a classical author such as Lysias, Xenophon, or Plato. The aim is familiarity with Greek idiom and sentence structure. Spring

GREK 20100. Intermediate Greek I: Plato. PQ: GREK 10300 or equivalent. We read Plato’s text with a view to understanding both the grammatical constructions and the artistry of the language. We also give attention to the dramatic qualities of the dialogue. Grammatical exercises reinforce the learning of syntax. H. Dik.Autumn.

GREK 20200. Intermediate Greek II: Tragedy PQ: GREK 10300 or equivalent. We will focus on translation of the Greek text and close reading of syntax and metrical analysis. We will also discuss Sophoclean language, dramatic technique, and tragedy in fifth-century Athens. Winter.

GREK 20300. Intermediate Greek III: Homer. PQ: GREK 10300 or equivalent. Close reading of two books of the Iliad, with an emphasis on the language along with elements of Greek historical linguistics. Spring.

GREK 21116/31116. Herodotus. Herodotus has a well-deserved reputation as a great story teller. He broke new ground in his writing of a history of the world as he knew it in prose, while at the same time claiming the heritage of Homeric epic. While reading Herodotus will prove to be a pleasure in itself, it will also help aspiring Hellenists get the hang of the structural characteristics of Greek narrative prose. Readings will be primarily from book 1, with a selection of passages from the later books. Students are encouraged to read the full Histories in translation. H. DikAutumn.

GREK 21216/31216. Greek Philosophy. (=FNDL 21005, BIBL 2/31200) The Phaedrus is one of the most fascinating and compelling of Plato’s dialogues. Beginning with a playful treatment of the theme of erotic passion, it continues with a consideration of the nature of inspiration, love, and knowledge. The centerpiece is one the the most famous of the Platonic myths, the moving description of the charioteer and its allegory of the vision, fall, and incarnation of the soul. We will read the entire dialogue, with special attention the language and style, with a particular focus on religious and theological ideas. E. Asmis. Spring.

GREK 21300/31300. Greek Tragedy. This course is an introduction to Aeschylean drama in general, seen through the special problems posed by one play. Lectures and discussions are concerned with the play, the development and early form of Attic drama, and philosophical material. Modern Aeschylean scholars are also read and discussed. E. Asmis. Winter.

GREK 23116/33116. Plato as a Socratic. The class will read Plato's Seventh Letter in Greek and relevant scholarship in English. J. Redfield. Winter.

GREK 24500/34500. Justin Martyr. (=BIBL 44500, FNDL 24504, BIBL 41801) It is probably safe to say that Justin Martyr was the first truly philosophic Christian theologian, unless one gives the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews that distinction. This course will focus on a careful reading of the Greek text of the First Apology and (as time permits) the Second Apology, with attention to Justin's language and literary style. We will also concentrate on Justin as an early defender of and advocate for the Christian faith, the importance of his logos doctrine, his demonology, and his sacramental ideas and theology of worship. D. Martinez. Spring.

GREK 24916/34916. Greek Epigraphy: Private and Public Inscriptions of the Greek City-States(=NELC 44916, CLAS 44816, HIST 50303, ARTH, DIVS) Greek inscriptions provide us a unique and specific approach to the ancient Greek world. This class will investigate both private and public inscriptions of the ancient Greek city states, from the Archaic to the Imperial period. It will allow us to explore new forms of expression of the Greek language and specific and highly diversified cultural features. The class is open to students with proficiency in Greek, at least at an intermediary level. Open to Undergraduates with professor approval. A. Bresson. Winter.

GREK 25116/35116. Reading Greek Literature in the Papyri (=BIBL 36916/HCHR 36916) The earliest—and often the only—witnesses for Greek literary works are the papyri. This makes their testimony of great importance for literary history and interpretation, but that testimony does not come without problems. In this course we will cover some of the concepts and techniques needed to recover the literary treasure contained in this highly complex material: from the history of book forms, the textual tradition of literary works, and the creation of the canons to more philological aspects such as editorial practice, Textkritik and paleography. Our literary corpus will include biblical texts, paraliterary (school and magical) texts, and translations of Egyptian texts into Greek. We will work with photographs of the papyri, and every part of the course will be based on practice. As appropriate we will also work with the University of Chicago’s collections of papyri. Requirements: at least two years of Greek. S. Toralles. Autumn.

GREK 26716. Sem: The Iliad through its Characters. (=GREK 41916) Aristotle praises the Iliad for its cohesive plot, but in many ways the epic is driven not by plot but by character. In this seminar we will explore the varied presentations of heroic (and non-heroic) character in the Iliad by reading great stretches of the poem, with a particular focus on speeches and non-verbal communication. Through this lens we will engage the epic’s central themes, including mortality, relations with the divine, and conceptions of the polis, as well as questions of the poem's unity, composition, and poetics. E. Austin. Spring.


LATN 10100. Introduction to Classical Latin I. This course introduces students to the rudiments of ancient Latin. Class time is spent on the explanation of grammar, translation from Latin to English and from English to Latin, and discussion of student work.

LATN 10200. Introduction to Classical Latin II. This course continues through the basic text begun in LATN 10100.

LATN 10300. Introduction to Classical Latin III. After finishing the text, the course involves reading in Latin prose and poetry, during which reading the students consolidate the grammar and vocabulary taught in LATN 10100 and 10200.

LATN 11100. Accelerated Introduction to Classical Latin I. This course covers the first half of the introductory Latin textbook. Classes are devoted to the presentation of grammar, discussion of problems in learning Latin, and written exercises.

LATN 11200. Accelerated Introduction to Classical Latin II. This course begins with the completion of the basic text begun in LATN 11100 and concludes with readings from Cicero, Caesar, or other prose texts in Latin.

LATN 11300. Accelerated Introduction to Classical Latin III. Students apply the grammatical skills taught in LATN 11100-11200 by reading a continuous prose text, such as a complete speech of Cicero. Our aim is familiarity with Latin idiom and sentence structure.

LATN 20100. Intermediate Latin. This course is aimed at students who have completed one of the introductory sequences and at entering students with extensive previous training, as evidenced by a placement exam. As a whole, it provides students with an overview of important genres and with the linguistic skills to read independently, and/or to proceed to advanced courses in the language. M. Allen. Autumn

LATN 20200. Ovid. PQ: LATN 20100 or equivalent. This course is a reading of selections from the first five books of the Metamorphoses, with emphasis on Ovid’s language, versification, and literary art. P. White. Winter.

LATN 20300. Vergil. PQ: LATN 20200 or equivalent. This course is a reading of selections from the first six books of the Aeneid, with emphasis on Vergil’s language, versification, and literary art. Students also are required to read the whole of the epic in an English translation. Staff. Spring.

LATN 21100/31100. Roman Elegy. This course examines the development of the Latin elegy from Catullus to Ovid. Our major themes are the use of motifs and topics and their relationship to the problem of poetic persona. D. Wray. Autumn.

LATN 21200/31200. Roman Novel/Philosophical Prose: Cicero, De re publica. (=FNDL 21203) The object of the course is to learn what Cicero understood the project of political theory to be and to explore a number of the contexts in which his work has been read. To this end, we will explore some of the traditions on which Cicero drew, read the entirety of the fragments of the Republic, and engage the work of a number of its readers, both ancient and modern. C. Ando. Spring.

LATN 21300/31300. Vergil. This course will survey the main interpretive issues surrounding Vergil's Aeneid through a selection of readings from books 1-12. You will also be required to read the entire epic in English translation. Class time will be given to translation of the Latin, discussion of the secondary readings, and attention to the epic’s larger themes and meanings in the literary and cultural context of Augustan Rome. S. Bartsch. Winter.

LATN 26000/36000. Latin Paleography. The course will emphasize the development of Latin handwriting, primarily as book scripts, from its origins to the waning of the Carolingian minuscule, ca. A.D. 1100. By mastering the foundational types of writing, the students will develop skills for reading all Latin-based scripts, including those used for vernacular languages and the subsequent Gothics and their derivatives down to the sixteenth century. M. Allen. Winter.