Clifford Ando

Clifford Ando

Clifford Ando (Ph.D. Classical Studies, University of Michigan, 1996) is David B. and Clara E. Stern Professor of Humanities and Professor of Classics, History, Law and in the College. He is the author of Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire (2000), for which he was awarded the APA’s Goodwin Award in 2003; The Matter of the Gods (2008); Law, Language and Empire in the Roman Tradition (2011); Le Droit et l’Empire. Invention juridique et réalités politiques à Rome (2012); Imperial Rome: the critical century (A.D. 193-284) (2012); Religion et gouvernement dans l’Empire romain (2012).

He is the editor of two books, Roman Religion (2003) and, with Jörg Rüpke, Religion and Law in Classical and Christian Rome (2006), as well as a series, Empire and After, published by the University of Pennsylvania Press. His current research examines problems of law, administration and and cultural change in the Roman empire.


Department of Classics
1115 E. 58th St
Chicago, IL 60637

office: Classics 23
fax: 773.702.5728

Curriculum Vitae

Fellowships, Grants, and Prizes

  • Cecil H. and Ida Green Visiting Professor, The University of British Columbia, November 2014
  • Lucy Shoe Merritt Scholar in Residence, American Academy in Rome, 2014–2015
  • Directeur d’études invité, Université Panthéon-Assas (Paris 2), March 2014
  • Fellow, Max-Weber-Kolleg für kultur- und sozialwissenschaftliche Studien, Universität Erfurt, June–September 2013
  • Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel Research Prize, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, 2012
  • Robson Classical Lecturer, Victoria University, University of Toronto, 2012
  • Rackham Centennial Alumni Lecture, University of Michigan, October 2012
  • Loeb Classical Library Foundation grant, 2012
  • Directeur d’études invité, École pratique des hautes études, Paris, May 2011
  • Canterbury Fellow, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, 2010
  • Invité sur chaire d’État, Collège de France, March 2010
  • New Directions Fellow, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, 2009-2011
  • Fellow, Max-Weber-Kolleg für kultur- und sozialwissenschaftliche Studien, Universität Erfurt, 2009-2010
  • Gastprofessor, Exzellenzcluster “Religion und Politik in den Kulturen der Vormoderne und der Moderne,” Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 2008-2012
  • Gastprofessor, Kollegforschergruppe “Religiöse Individualisierung in historischer Perspektive,” Universität Erfurt, 2008-2012
  • Senior Fellow, Society of Fellows, University of Chicago, 2007-2010
  • Frederick Burkhardt Fellow, American Council of Learned Societies
  • Fellow, Huntington Library, San Marino, California, 2004-2005
  • Charles J. Goodwin Award of Merit for Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire, American Philological Association, 2003
  • Visiting Scholar, Faculty of Classics, and Fellow, Wolfson College, Oxford, Trinity Term 2001
  • Fellow, American Council of Learned Societies, 2000-2001
  • Zumberge Fellow, University of Southern California, 1999-2000
  • Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada Small Grant, 1997-1998
  • University of Michigan Merit Fellow, 1992-1994, 1995-1996
  • Mellon Fellow in the Humanities, 1990-1992, 1994-1995
  • Phi Beta Kappa – elected 1990



  • Religion et gouvernement dans l’Empire romain. Bibliothèque de l’École des Hautes Études. Turnhout: Brepols, forthcoming 2014.
  • L’Empire et le Droit. Invention juridique et réalités politiques à Rome. Traduit par Michèle Bresson. Paris: Odile Jacob, 2013.
  • Imperial Rome AD 193 to 284. The critical century. J.S. Richardson, series editor. The Edinburgh History of Ancient Rome. Edinburgh University Press, 2012.
  • Law, language and empire in the Roman tradition. Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.
  • The matter of the gods. Berkeley: The University of California Press, 2008. Paperback edition, 2009.
  • Imperial ideology and provincial loyalty in the Roman empire. Berkeley: The University of California Press, 2000.

Edited Volumes

  • With Christopher A. Faraone. Serments et paroles efficaces. Métis no. 10. Paris: Éditions de l’EHESS, 2012.
  • With Jörg Rüpke. Religion and law in classical and Christian Rome. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2006.
  • Roman Religion. Edinburgh Readings on the Ancient World. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2003.

Articles and Contributions to Edited Volumes

  • “Pluralism and empire, from Rome to Robert Cover.“ Critical Analysis of Law: An International & Interdisciplinary Law Review 1 (2014), 1–23.
  • “Fact, fiction and social reality in Roman law.” Maksymilian del Mar and William Twining, eds., Legal Fictions in Theory and Practice, Boston: Springer, forthcoming.
  • “Religion and Violence in Late Roman North Africa.” Journal of Late Antiquity, forthcoming 2014.
  • “Colonialism, Colonization.” Daniel L. Selden and Phiroze Vasunia, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Literatures of the Roman Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming.
  • “Mythistory: the pre-Roman past in Latin Late Antiquity.” Hartmut Leppin, ed. Antike Mythologie in christlichen Kontexte der Spätantike — Bilde, Räume, Texte, forthcoming.
  • “The Edict of Serdica in religious-historical perspective,” V. Vatchkova and D. Dmitrov, eds., The Edict of Serdica (AD 311): Concepts and Realization of the Idea of Religious Toleration, forthcoming 2013, 49–60.
  • “Postscript: Cities, citizenship and the work of empire.” Claudia Rapp and H. A. Drake, eds., The city in the classical and post-classical world: Changing contexts of power and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. 240–256.
  • “Pluralisme juridique et l’intégration de l’empire.” Stéphane Benoist and Gerda de Kleijn, eds., Integration in Rome and in the Roman World. Impact of Empire 17. Leiden: Brill, 2013. 5–19.
  • “The changing face of Cisalpine identity.” Alison Cooley, ed. A companion to Roman Italy (Oxford: Blackwell), forthcoming.
  • “Three revolutions in government.” Forthcoming in Lucian Reinfandt, Stephan Prochazka and Sven Tost, Official epistolography and the languages of power, Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, forthcoming 2013.
  • “The rites of others.” Jonathan Edmondson and Alison Keith, eds. Roman Social and Cultural Life: Domestic Drama and Civic Spectacle. University of Toronto Press, forthcoming.
  • “Cities, gods, empire.” Ted Kaizer, Aanna Leone, Edmund Thomas and Robert Witcher, eds. Cities & Gods. Religious space in transition. Leuven: Peeters, 2013. 51–57.
  • “Subjects, gods and empire, or Monarchism as a theological problem.” Jörg Rüpke, ed., The Individual in the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013. 86–111.
  • “The origins and import of republican constitutionalism.” Cardozo Law Review, vol. 34 (2013), 917–935.
  • “The Roman city in the Roman period.” Stéphane Benoist, ed. Rome, a city and its empire in perspective: The impact of the Roman World through Fergus Millar’s research. Rome, une cité impériale en jeu : l'impact du monde romain selon Fergus Millar. Leiden: Brill, 2012. 109–124.
  • “Afterword.” C.A. Faraone and Fred Naiden, eds. Greek and Roman animal sacrifice: Ancient victims, modern observers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. 195–199.
  • “Empire, state and communicative action.” Christine Kuhn, ed. Politische Kommunikation und öffentliche Meinung in der antiken Welt. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 2012. 219–229.
  • “Praesentia numinis. Part 2: Objects in Roman cult.” Asdiwal 6 (2011), forthcoming.
  • “Scripture, authority and exegesis, Augustine to Chalcedon.” F. Prescendi and Y. Volokhine, eds., with the assistagnce of D. Barbu and P. Matthey. Dans le laboratoire de l’historien des religions, Mélanges offerts à Philippe Borgeaud. Geneva: Labor et Fides, 2011. 213-226.
  • “Law and the landscape of empire.” Stéphane Benoist and Anne Daguey-Gagey, eds. Figures d’empire, fragments de mémoire: Pouvoirs (pratiques et discours, images et représentations), et identités (sociales et religieuses) dans le monde romain impérial (Ier s. av J.-C. - Ve s. ap. J.-C.). Paris: Presses Universitaires de Septentrion, 2011. 25–47.
  • “From Republic to Empire.” Michael Peachin, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Social Relations in the Roman World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. 37–66.
  • “Praesentia numinis. Part 1: The invisibility of gods in Roman thought and language.” Asdiwal 5 (2010), 45–73.
  • “Empire and the laws of war: an archaeology.” Benedict Kingsbury and Benjamin Straumann, eds. The Roman foundations of the law of nations: Alberico Gentili and the justice of empire. Oxford University Press, 2010. 30-52.
  • “The ontology of religious institutions.” History of Religions 50 (2010), 54-79.
  • “Imperial identities.” Tim Whitmarsh, ed. Local knowledge and microidentities in the imperial Greek world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. 17-45
  • “‘A dwelling beyond violence.’ On the uses and disadvantages of history for contemporary republicans.” History of Political Thought 31.2 (2010), 183-220.
  • “After antiquity.” Alessandro Barchiesi and Walter Scheidel, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Roman Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. 685-298.
  • “Evidence and Orthopraxy.” Review article of John Scheid, Quand faire, c’est croire. Les rites sacrificiels des Romains, Paris: Aubier, 2005. Journal of Roman Studies 99 (2009), 171-81.
  • “Citizenship, Roman” and “Political structure and ideology, Roman Empire,” in M. Gagarin, ed., The Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • “Diana on the Aventine.” Hubert Cancik and Jörg Rüpke, eds. Die Religion des Imperium Romanum. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2009. 99-113.
  • “Decline, fall and transformation.” The Journal of Late Antiquity 1 (Spring 2008), 30-60.
  • “Narrating Decline and Fall.” Philip Rousseau, ed. A Companion to Late Antiquity. Oxford: Blackwell, 2008. 59-76.
  • “Aliens, ambassadors and the integrity of the empire.” Law and History Review 26.3 (Fall 2008), 491-519.
  • “The army and the urban elite: a competition for power.” Paul Erdkamp, ed. The Blackwell Companion to the Roman Army. Oxford: Blackwell, 2007. 359-378
  • “Exporting Roman religion.” Jörg Rüpke, ed. The Blackwell Companion to Roman Religion. Oxford: Blackwell, 2007. 429-445
  • “Religion and ius publicum.” Clifford Ando and Jörg Rüpke, eds. Religion and law in classical and Christian Rome. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2006. 126-145
  • “Idols and their critics.” James Boyd White, ed. How should we talk about religion? Notre Dame, Indiana: The University of Notre Dame Press, 2006. 33-54
  • “Christian literature.” Ed Bispham, Tom Harrison, and Brian Sparkes, eds. The Edinburgh Companion to Ancient Greece and Rome. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006. 402-406
  • “The administration of the provinces.” David S. Potter, ed. The Blackwell Companion to the Roman Empire. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006. 177-192
  • “Interpretatio Romana.” Classical Philology 100.1 (January 2005) 41-51. Reprinted with revisions in L. de Blois, P. Funke and J. Hahn, eds. The impact of imperial Rome on religious ritual and religious life in the Roman empire, Proceedings of the fifth workshop of the international network Impact of Empire (Roman Empire, 200 B.C. - A.D. 476), Münster, June 30 - July 4, 2004. Leiden: Brill. 51-65.
  • “A religion for the empire.” A. J. Boyle and W. J. Dominik, eds. Flavian Rome: Culture, image, text. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2003. 323-344
  • Review article of Lukas de Blois, ed., Administration, prosopography and appointment policies in the Roman Empire (Amsterdam: J. C. Gieben, 2001). Journal of Roman Archaeology 15 (2002) 516-524
  • “Vergil’s Italy: ethnography and politics in first century-Rome.” David S. Levene and Damien Nelis, eds., Clio and the poets: Augustan poetry and the traditions of ancient historiography, Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2002. 123-142
  • “The Palladium and the Pentateuch: towards a sacred topography of the later Roman empire.” Phoenix 55.3-4 (2001) 369-410
  • “Signs, idols, and the incarnation in Augustinian metaphysics.” Representations 73 (2001) 24-53
  • “Was Rome a polis?” Classical Antiquity 18.1 (1999) 5-34
  • “Tacitus, Annales VI: beginning and end.” American Journal of Philology 118.2 (1997) 285-303
  • “Pagan apologetics and Christian intolerance in the ages of Themistius and Augustine.” Journal of Early Christian Studies 4.2 (1996) 171-207
  • “Augustine on language.” Revue des Études Augustiniennes 40.1 (1994) 45-78

Reviews and short notes

  • Review of Detlef Liebs, Summoned to Roman Courts. Famous trials from antiquity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012). Law and History Review 31 (2013), 267–268.
  • With Anne McGinness, “Citizenship and empire in Europe, 200–1900: The Antonine Constitution after 1800 years.” Bollettino di studi latini 43.1 (2013), 270–274.
  • Review of Béatrice Bakhouche, ed., trans., comm., Calcidius: Commentaire au Timée de Platon, 2 volumes, Histoire des doctrines de l’antiquité classique 42 (Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin, 2011), Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2012-09-20.
  • Review of Olga Tellegen-Couperus, ed. Law and religion in the Roman Republic, Mnemosyne Supplements, History and Archaeology of Classical Antiquity, 336 (Boston, MA: Brill, 2012). Religious Studies Review 38 (2012), 235.
  • With Christopher A. Faraone, “Préface.” Serments et paroles efficaces, Métis no. 10 (Paris: Éditions de l’EHESS, 2012), 7–9.
  • Review of Timothy Barnes, Constantine: Dynasty, Religion and Power in the Later Roman Empire (Malden, Mass.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011). American Historical Review, 117.4 (2012), 1277–1278.
  • Review of Brent D. Shaw, Sacred Violence: African Christians and Sectarian Hatred in the Age of Augustine (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011). Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2012.08.30.
  • Review of Erich Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010) and Erich Gruen, ed., Cultural Identity in the Ancient Mediterranean (Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute, 2011). Times Literary Supplement, 13 January 2012 p. 10
  • “Religion et gouvernement dans l’Empire romain.” Annuaire de l’EPHE, Sections des sciences religieuses, 119 (2010–2011), 119–120.
  • Review of John Matthews, Roman Perspectives. Studies in the social, political and cultural history of the First to Fifth Centuries. Swansea: The Classical Press of Wales, 2010. Gnomon, forthcoming
  • Review of Marie Cabaud Meaney, Simone Weil’s apologetic use of literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Modern Philology 109.3 (2012), 207–210
  • Review of Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, Rome’s cultural revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Phoenix 64 (2010), 460–462
  • Review of Julien Fournier, Entre tutelle romaine et autonomie civique. L’administration judiciaire dans les provinces hellénophones de l’Empire romain (129 av. J.-C. – 235 apr. J.-C.). BEFAR 341. Paris: Boccard, 2010. Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2011.09.08
  • Review of David M. Gwynn, ed. A.H.M. Jones and the Later Roman Empire. Leiden: Brill, 2008. Journal of Late Antiquity 3.1 (2010), 225-228.
  • Review of Edward Bispham, From Asculum to Actium. The municipalization of Italy from the Social War to Augustus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. Bryn Mawr Classical Review. [link to review]
  • Review of Alan K. Bowman, Peter Garnsey, and Averil Cameron, eds. The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 12: The crisis of empire, A.D. 193-337. 2nd. edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Journal of Roman Studies 98 (2008) 266-268.
  • Review of James B. Rives, Religion in the Roman Empire. Oxford: Blackwell, 2007. Journal of Religion 88 (October 2008) 552-554.
  • Review of Paul Veyne, Quand notre monde est devenu chrétien (312-394). Paris: Albin Michel. Times Literary Supplement no. 5473 (22 February 2008), 24-5.
  • “Driftwood to Google. How and what we map: a remarkable exhibition in Chicago.” Times Literary Supplement no. 5466 (4 January 2008), 14-15.
  • “Jewish privilege.” Review of Martin Goodman, Rome & Jerusalem. The clash of ancient civilizations. London: Penguin/Allen Lane, 2007. Times Literary Supplement no. 5427 (6 April 2007), 6-7
  • “Greeks in Latin.” Review of Fergus Millar, A Greek Roman Empire. Power and belief under Theodosius II (408-450). Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006. Times Literary Supplement no. 5420 (16 February 2007), 9.
  • Review of Sviatoslav Dmitriev, City government in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. The Classical Outlook 84.3 (Spring 2007), 132-133.
  • Review of Elizabeth Meyer, Legitimacy and law in the Roman world. Tabulae in Roman belief and practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2004. Classical Journal 100.4
  • Review of N. Lenski, Failure of empire: Valens and the Roman state in the fourth century A.D. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. American Historical Review 109.4 (October 2004), 1289-1290
  • Review of J.G.A. Pocock, Barbarism and Religion, Vol. 3. The First Decline and Fall. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Journal of Roman Studies 94 (2004) 219-221
  • Review of Axel Gebhardt, Imperiale Politik und provinziale Entwicklung. Untersuchungen zum Verhältnis von Kaiser, Heer und Städten im Syrien der vorseverischen Zeit. Klio Beiträge zur Alten Geschichte, 4. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2002. Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2004.09.04
  • Review of Tim Whitmarsh, Greek Literature and the Roman Empire. The Politics of Imitation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. Classical Philology 99.1 (January 2004) 89-98
  • Review of Pierre Laederich, Les limites de l’empire: les stratégies de l’impérialisme romain dans l’oeuvre de Tacite. Paris: Economica, Institut de stratégie comparée, Commission française d’histoire militaire, 2001.Journal of Roman Studies 94 (2004) 255-256
  • “Origins: the census.” Archaeology Odyssey 6.5 (September/October 2003) 6-7
  • Review of Fergus Millar, Rome, the Greek World, and the East. Volume 1: The Roman Republic and the Augustan Revolution. Hannah M. Cotton and Guy M. Rogers, eds. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002. Classical Journal 99.2 (2003-04), 219-223
  • Review of Simon Goldhill, ed., Being Greek under Rome: cultural identity, the Second Sophistic, and the development of empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Phoenix 57.3-4 (Winter 2003), 355-360
  • Review of R. MacMullen, Romanization in the time of Augustus. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000. Phoenix 56.3-4 (2002) 388-391
  • Review of Jill Harries, Law and empire in late antiquity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999) and John Matthews, Laying down the law: a study of the Theodosian Code (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000). Phoenix 56.1-2 (2002) 198-203
  • Review of S. H. Rutledge. Imperial Inquisitions: prosecutors & informers from Tiberius to Domitian. London: Routledge, 2001. Classical Review 52.2 (2002) 321-323
  • Review of Matthew B. Roller, Constructing autocracy: aristocrats and emperors in Julio-Claudian Rome. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001. American Historical Review 107.4 (2002) 1273-1274
  • Review of Warrick Ball, Rome in the East. The transformation of an empire. New York: Routledge, 2000. Classical Outlook 78.4 (2001) 176-178
  • Review of Y. Lehmann, Varron théologien et philosophe romain. Brussels: Latomus, 1997. Scholia ns 10 (2000) no. 1.
  • Review of G. Woolf, Becoming Roman. The origins of provincial civilization in Gaul. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Phoenix 53.3-4 (1999) 386-388
  • Review of S. MacCormack, The shadows of poetry. Vergil in the mind of Augustine. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998. Journal of Early Christian Studies 7.2 (1999) 331-332
  • “Habermas and Rome.” American Journal of Archaeology 102 (1998) 405
  • Review of A. R. Birley, Hadrian: the restless emperor. London: Routledge, 1997. Phoenix 52 (1998) 183-185
  • Review of J. R. Martindale, ed. The prosopography of the later Roman empire, Part III, A.D. 527-641. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Phoenix 51.1 (1997) 86-88
  • Review of N. Lewis, On government and law in Roman Egypt. Collected papers of Naphtali Lewis. Ann Ellis Hanson, ed. American Studies in Papyrology, 33. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1995. Bryn Mawr Classical Review7.5 (1996) 409-411
  • Review of H. W. Bird, Aurelius Victor: De Caesaribus. Translation with introduction and commentary. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1994. Bryn Mawr Classical Review 6.2 (1995) 98-101
  • Review of S. Borzsák. Tacitus: ab excessu divi Augusti libri I-VI. Leipzig and Stuttgart: Teubner, 1992. Bryn Mawr Classical Review 4.6 (1993) 423-429
  • Review of H. W. Bird, Eutropius: Breviarium. Translation with introduction and commentary. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1993. Bryn Mawr Classical Review 4.6 (1993) 420-422

Works in Progress

  • (ed.) Law’s artifice. Essays on Roman law and legal philosophy by Yan Thomas. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, in progress.
  • The ambitions of government. Berkeley: The University of California Press, in progress.
  • The holy man and his holy fools. Berkeley: The University of California Press, in progress.
  • Religion et gouvernement dans l'Empire romain. Bibliothèque de l'École des Hautes Études. Turnhout: Brepols, in progress.

Most Recent Courses Taught

  • Romans Outside Rome
  • Greek Thought and Literature
  • Study Abroad Program in Rome
  • Latin Prose Survey
  • Cicero, De Republica
  • Roman Law
  • Intermediate Latin
  • State and Subject in the Roman Empire
  • Empire and Enlightenment